Consciousness is generally understood to be the state of being aware of one's surroundings, thoughts, and feelings. It is the subjective experience of being aware of oneself and the world around oneself.
In terms of neuroscience, consciousness is closely linked to the activity of the brain, and specifically to the functioning of certain neural networks. While there is still much that is not fully understood about the nature of consciousness, there are several theories that attempt to explain how it arises from brain activity.
One such theory is the integrated information theory, which suggests that consciousness arises from the integration of information across multiple parts of the brain. Another theory is the global workspace theory, which proposes that consciousness arises from the brain's ability to broadcast information to multiple neural networks, allowing for the integration of diverse information.
Despite ongoing research and debate, the nature of consciousness remains one of the great mysteries of neuroscience and philosophy.